DSM-V中恋童症的诊断标准为什么强调“注:不包括青年人与12或13岁儿童发生持久的性关系。”?

这是非常专业的提问,我直接英文作答比较清楚,简单的中文解释可直接跳至文未。

DSM-5 was released in May of 2013. The DSM-5 release brings numerous changes to several categories of mental disorders.

Your first question is about a note was added to the diagnostic criteria for pedophilic disorder. that states, “Do not include an individual in late adolescence involved in an ongoing sexual relationship with a 12 or 13 year old.” This is a good addition because it may eliminate unnecessary and potentially damaging diagnoses , and prevents someone from receive a severe stigma *.

Regarding those terminology you asked, we have to first know that psychiatric terminology should convey information in as clear and unambiguous a manner as possible. In light of the associated stigma, that is especially so of the terms Pedophilia, Pedophilic Disorder, Pedophilic sexual orientation” .

According to the DSM-5, pedophilia refers to a sexual orientation or profession of sexual preference devoid of consummation, whereas pedophilic disorder is defined as a compulsion and is used in reference to individuals who act on their sexuality.

In discussing Pedophilia, DSM-5 makes reference to the term Pedophilic Sexual Orientation^ . Sexual Orientation is ordinarily used to designate the category, or categories, of persons whom a given individual finds to be sexually appealing.

In the face of significant criticism of its inclusion in the DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has stated its intention to remove the term Pedophilic Sexual Orientation from the diagnostic manual.

APA notes that the correct terminology is “sexual interest” and that it will correct the error in the manual’s electronic version and in the next print edition. You can find the orignal quote from APA statement released on the 1st Nov, 2013, “Sexual orientation is not a term used in the diagnostic criteria for pedophilic disorder, and its use in the DSM-5 text discussion is an error.”

The APA adds pedophilic disorder is a “paraphilia” and not a sexual orientation. Other paraphilic disorders included in the manual include exhibitionistic disorder, sexual sadism disorder, and fetishistic disorder.

*如果是17、18岁(青春期晚期,late adolescence)的个案与12、13岁(即将青春期)的对象有性行为(ongoing sexual relationship),则常是青春期之迷惘状态,对性之角色与定位尚在寻找认同阶段,因此不能被直接诊断为恋童症。这是DSM-V新加的。

“专有名词翻译:

Pedophile 恋童者

Pedophilia 恋童癖

Pedophilic sexual orientation 恋童性取向

Pedophilic disorder 恋童精神失常

^在2013年5月,由美国精神病协会发布的《精神疾病诊断与统计手册》第五版(DSM-5)中,第一次将恋童定义为一种“性取向(sexual orientation)”——它的前提是恋童的取向本身没有对本人造成精神压力,以至于不能正常行使社会职能,以及恋童者本人从没有在任何程度上猥亵过儿童 ,否则恋童就不再是一种性取向,而是一种精神失常 (Pedophilic disorder)。当時,DSM-5将恋童定义为性取向(sexual orientation)的做法,被社会大众视为是恋童合法化的前奏(类似同性恋合法化),抗议声如山呼海啸。在社会压力下(当然也包括学界),美国精神病协会2013年11月发表声明,称“性取向”一说是一个“错误”。

来源:知乎 http://www.zhihu.com

作者:苏德中

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